During the Argentinean Antarctic expedition of the summer 2014-2015, T. Sone and S. Tanabe (Hokkaido Univ., Japan) investigated permafrost temperatures on Seymour (Marambio) Island and James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). Geodesic surveys on rock glaciers, solifluction lobes, protalus lobes were conducted on James Ross Island.

Engineering geonomic forecast model of glacial-permafrost georisks in mountainous countries on the example of Kyrgyz Tien Shan

Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences, Bishkek

Usupaev Sh.E., Usubaliev R.A, Erokhin S.A, Atakanov U., Azisov E.

Researchers of global warming, not fully use data on rhythmic change of glacial to the interglacial periods, and moreover do not consider indicators of the glaciers formation which include inertia-resistant permafrost environment on the Earth [1-4].

For last years as an increase of economic growth of Mongolia the infrastructures such as roads, power plants and others have been built in Mongolia. Some of these infrastructures will be built in permafrost areas. Within conception agreement between Mongolian government and an international team of companies (QDF SUEZ Energy Asia, Sojitz Corporation, POSCO Energy, and NEWCOM) new combined heat and power plant is planning to construct near the Ulaanbaatar city. There is sparsely insular permafrost distribution at the site of this power plant. Permafrost team of our laboratory have completed the permafrost distribution map of this site using the ERT method and temperature measurements in boreholes. The site of power plant has a patchy permafrost.

We continue to maintain our Antarctic soil-permafrost monitoring network in the Ross Sea Region, which now comprises 9 soil climate monitoring stations that monitor to depths of about 1.2 m, along with 2 boreholes, each 30 m deep (Figure 1). This work is undertaken with continuing collaboration between Landcare Research (Fraser Morgan), the University of Waikato (Megan Balks) and USDA (Cathy Seybold). The boreholes are managed also in collaboration with Prof Mauro Guglielmin from Italy. Megan Balks and Dean Sandwell undertook the climate station maintenance and download in January 2015 and this summer Dean Sandwell will be returning to Antarctica and training a new tech support, Chris Morcom, so we have some back-up expertise.

Engineering aspects

The SamCot program continues with 6 focus areas one being Coastal Technology where the objective is to develop knowledge and analytical and numerical models of coastal erosion in the Arctic. The Samcot program is organised as a Center for Reaserch-based Innovation (CRI) running until 2019 with NTNU, UNIS and Sintef as main contributors. The Moscow State University was also a significant contributor. Field work has been carried out both in Russia and Svalbard as can be seen below:

In 2015, Polish scientists investigated different aspects of permafrost on Spitsbergen and in the Polish mountains.

In 2015, scientists from the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań relocated the University Polar Station from the area of Petunia Bay to a new location in the area of Pyramiden. The main direction of work in the scope of permafrost and periglacial research was the continuation of already initiated observations of active layer temperature and thickness according to CALM guidelines at two sites differing in ground humidity conditions (‘dry’ – on a raised marine terrace and ‘wet – on the surface of a river terrace).

Portuguese research on permafrost and periglacial environments in 2015 was conducted within the following projects.

- Permafrost and climate change in the Antarctic Peninsula. Long-term permafrost and active layer monitoring and modelling (PERMANTAR-3, PI: Gonçalo Vieira, Univ. Lisbon) continued in 2015, with field parties in Livingston Island, King George Island, Deception Island, Cierva Cove and Palmer archipelago. Cooperation with Spain, Brazil, Bulgaria, Argentina, Chile, South Korea and the USA. Alice Ferreira and João Branco conducting PhD theses.

In 2015 three groups were engaged in periglacial geomorphology and permafrost researches, of the West University of Timişoara, Bucharest University and University ,,Babeş-Bolyai” Cluj-Napoca. The group of periglacial researchers from West University of Timişoara (P. Urdea, A. Onaca, F. Ardelean, A. C. Ardelean, R. Şerban, R. Puţan, F. Sîrbu, B. Magori) continued to study permafrost distribution and other significant periglacial landforms in Southern Carpathians.

Geocryological monitoring in undisturbed condition was continued. The 2015-results were submitted in the GTN-P Database. The 298 observatories contain several boreholes or soil temperature measurements. The 61 CALM-sites present different landscape condition.

CAPEC Project

The CAPEC (Circum Arctic Permafrost Environment Change Monitoring) Project, supported by Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, has been continued since 2011. Through this project, we plan to establish Arctic monitoring nodes to study environmental changes and develop the state-of-the-art observation techniques for terrestrial permafrost region. This monitoring project includes atmosphere-pedosphere-biosphere monitoring system with Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) and GPS monitoring.