There are about ten IPY coordinated projects in Finland. The leading projects are Interhemispheric Conjugacy in Geospace Phenomena and their Heliospheric Drivers (ICESTAR/IHY) and Change and variability of Arctic Systems Nordaustlandet, Svalbard (“Kinnvika”). The key participants in Finnish IPY research are the Arctic Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute, University of Oulu, University of Lapland and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK).

There are also about 20 institutions acting as partners in international IPY projects/consortiums, e.g. University of Helsinki, Finnish Environmental Institute, Finnish Institute of Marine Research and Geological Survey of Finland. In general, Finnish researchers are engaged with about 100 international IPY projects. More information about the projects, development of research station network and education can be found from the Finnish IPY website (www. ipy-fi ). Related to the IPY topics, an international congress was held at the Geological Survey of Finland in Espoo, November 12-13, 2008.

In addition to the above IPY activities, several research projects and groups are working in Finland. Some of these projects started before 2008 but they have not been reported in Frozen Ground previously. The project Spatial modelling of periglacial processes under environmental change (2008–2010) (J. Hjort from the University of Helsinki, Department of Geography, and M. Luoto and M. Marmion both from the University of Oulu, Department of Geography) aims to develop and test novel approaches to model the occurrences and distributional alterations of periglacial processes in response to climate change. The ultimate goal is to make a signifi cant step forward in combining empirical, geographic information (GI) and remote sensing (RS) data to predict and analyze complex geomorphological processes at various spatial scales. The Nordic Permafrost Young Researchers Network’s contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost project in the Nordic countries (PYRN – TSP, 2008–) (J. Hjort) project addresses the burning issue of impacts of increasing global temperatures on terrestrial permafrost. The project will provide young Nordic researchers with the means to conduct simple yet powerful measurements of permafrost conditions either in areas where records of prior observation exist (to establish recent trends) or in new undisturbed areas.

The project Global change impacts on sub-arctic palsa mires and greenhouse gas feedbacks to the climate system (PALSALARM, 2007–2008) (T.R. Carter and S. Fronzek from the Finnish Environment Institute; co-ordinating institute, and M. Luoto and M. Parviainen from the University of Oulu, Thule Institute/ Department of Geography) continued. PALSALARM brings together research groups from four institutions in the Nordic region who have hitherto worked largely independently on diff erent aspects of palsa mires. The central aim of the study is to estimate future changes in the distribution of palsa mires in Fennoscandia, and the implications of these changes for greenhouse gas budgets and nature conservation.

Biogeochemistry research group (P. Martikainen, C. Biasi and M. Repo) of the University of Kuopio continued the greenhouse gas flux measurements initiated in 2007 in discontinuous permafrost zone in Northeast European Russia. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O at the microsite level were measured from a peat plateau complex and adjacent shrub tundra areas. The studied ecosystem types include thermokarst lakes and soils aff ected by cryoturbation. The aim of the study is to improve our understanding of the flux dynamics and processes behind them in heterogenous Arctic landscape, characterized by the presence of permafrost and freezing and thawing processes. The flux campaigns were part of the EUfunded CARBO-North project, which aims at quantifying the carbon budget in northern Russia in past, present and future conditions (see

At the Geological Survey of Finland, the projects Development of applied geophysical techniques for mapping and monitoring permafrost (H. Vanhala, P. Lintinen, A.E.K. Ojala, H. Hirvas and I. Suppala) and Mapping and monitoring permafrost with geophysical techniques in the Komi Republic, Russia (H. Vanhala, P. Lintinen and I. Suppala) continued. Th ese projects aim to apply and develop geophysical techniques for mapping discontinuous and sporadic permafrost in Northern Finland and Vorkuta, Northwest Russia. An additional objective is the longer-term monitoring of the state of permafrost in the study regions. The first project started in 2004 with a series of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements at the Ridnitsohkka fell in Northern Finland. ERT measurements have repeated 2005 and 2008. In addition to ERT, OhmMapper, GPR and gravity measurements have been used. The second project started in 2007 with a series geophysical measurements (electrical resistivity tomography, ERT and multi-frequency MaxMin Slingram).

Jan Hjort ( )