In the Global Environmental Facility project ´Dynamics of biodiversity loss and permafrost melt in Lake Hövsgöl National Park`, led by Clyde Goulden, USA, Bernd Etzelmüller, University of Oslo, Norway and Vlad Romanovski, University of Fairbanks, USA, conducted geophysical (electric) and thermal measurements in seven 4- 10 m deep shallow boreholes to monitor and map the permafrost.

To study the dynamics of pingo, thermokarst, solifl uction and icing, it is planned to drill additional several shallow boreholes (see also separate report on this project). N. Sharkhuu each year expands the permafrost monitoring. This year he drilled three 15-m deep boreholes in Terkh, Chuluut and Sharga valleys in the Khangai mountains. The boreholes were located where former deep boreholes were drilled and investigated by him in 1969. He installed temperature data loggers in the soil surface and in the 1.3-m deep CALM borehole at 2950m asl.

N. Sharkhuu collaborated with M. Ishikawa and Y. Zhang taking part in fi eld surveys in the Joint Japanese and Mongolian FRONTIER project, headed by T. Ohata and T. Kadota. As part of this project, in the Nalaikh depression near Ulaanbaatar, automatic weather stations were operated at the same sites as the permafrost thermal monitoring 30 m deep borehole. In addition numerous temperature and water moisture data loggers were installed.

Jambaljav and coworkers conducted short-term visual fi eld observations of changes in some permafrost phenomenon in the Darkhad depression, Hövsgöl mountain region, to compare with old photographs and other materials.

N. Sharkhuu (