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Studies of permafrost and periglacial phenomena in 1994 were carried out during expeditions to Spitzbergen and King George Island (Antarctica) as well as the Kola Peninsula. These were continuations of programs started in previous years.
On Spitzbergen studies were carried out on Weddell Jarlsberg Land in the regions of Hornsund and Bellsund Fiords. They included problems of tundra freezing and thawing as well as the temperature of active layer and near-surface permafrost. The annual research programme was carried out by teams from Wroclaw University, Nicolai Copernici University in Torun, and the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, and were coordinated by A. Jahn.

During the summer, polar expeditions headed by K. Pekala, Department of Geomorphology, Institute of Earth Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin, undertook a monitoring program of contemporary morphogenetic processes and thermal conditions. The effect of meteorological conditions, relief, aspect of slopes, vegetation and soil moisture on permafrost active layer dynamics was studied in different tundra ecosystems in the region of the southern border of Bellsund. Contemporary frost processes, Arctic soil development, and permafrost water chemistry were also the subjects of investigation.
Some examinations of slope processes in the discontinuous permafrost zone were made by M. Harasimiuk (Department of Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowska University) on Kola Peninsula.
The investigations on King George Island, with the Polish H. Arctowski Station as a base, were undertaken by the team of A. Kostrzewski (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan) and concerned monitoring of contemporary periglacial processes and tundra ecosystems.
The results of investigations carried out by the Polish polar center are presented every year at polar symposia of the Polar Club of the Polish Geographical Society as well as at the polar sessions organized by the Institute of Earth Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowska University. The proceedings are published after each session and symposium. In 1994, two volumes were published: the 21st Polar Symposium in Warsaw, 60 Years of Polish Research of Spitzbergen (54 contributions, 371 pages, Warsaw), as well as Polar Session Arctic Natural Environment Problems (25 contributions, 202 pages, M. Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin).


Submitted by K. Pekala