Ground temperature had been measured in some boreholes by the 1970-1980s. Some of these boreholes were re-drilled on the same places within the establishment of permafrost network for last 5 years. In framework of national and international project and program the permafrost network with 120 boreholes has been established in Mongolia for 5-15 years. Therefore, we have a possibility to determine the changes of permafrost in Mongolia for last 30 years. As results of permafrost monitoring the permafrost warming has been registered in North and at high altitude, and the permafrost thawing has been registered in southern fringe of Mongolian permafrost regions for last 30 years. As recommended in second international symposium on mountain and arid land permafrost the Mongolian permafrost and ecological network was recognized as critical for understanding the dynamics of permafrost. Long (12-46 years) term monitoring of permafrost temperature and active layer thickness is continued by Sharkhuu in 48 boreholes with depths of mainly 10-15 m to 100-200 m, located in the Hovsgol, Hangai and Hentei mountainous regions of Mongolia.

We (permafrost team of Mongolia) have investigated the permafrost condition in local area with increase of infrastructure in Mongolia such as railway, road, new power plant, etc. Sharkhuu conducted permafrost studies within the framework of a geotechnical project, of which aim is to make a perspective plan of infrastructures in territory near Ulaanbaatar. He compiled a permafrost (1: 100,000) map of the area around Ulaanbaatar (75x66 km2) and large-scale permafrost maps of several settlements near the city based on studies of permafrost distribution pattern. Year-round measurements of ground temperature regime were made in 25 boreholes around Ulaanbaatar. A report of these studies has been prepared in detail.


Figure 1. Mud flow from melting of ice rich permafrost, Southern Hangai, Mongolia, N46 33 28.3; E99 59 27.1

Report prepared by Jambaljav Yamkhin