In Jotunheimen, southern Norway, temperature data from the Juvvasshøe PACE borehole (established in 1999) were collected (K. Isaksen). On Dovrefjell, southern Norway, data collection continued from 11 boreholes in a transect across the permafrost transition zone. These boreholes were drilled and instrumented in October 2001 (K. Isaksen, R.S. Ødegård, T. Eiken and J.L. Sollid).

The monitoring programme on Dovrefjell was extended with six new sites to measure ground surface temperatures (R.S. Ødegård and K. Isaksen). In the Møre and Romsdal area of southern Norway and in the Troms and Finnmark areas of northern Norway air- and ground temperatures data were collected (K. Isaksen, L.H. Blikra, T. Eiken and J.L. Sollid). In the mountains of Troms two new 30-m deep boreholes were drilled and instrumented in August 2004 for future collection of temperature data (K. Isaksen and L. H. Blikra). In Svalbard data from the Jansssonhaugen PACE borehole (established in 1998) were collected (K. Isaksen) and the first data from a new 2-m deep borehole on Janssonhaugen (established October 2003) were analysed and compared with the PACE borehole data from the same site. Collection of the temperature data from all these Norwegian boreholes is organized in a long-range monitoring programme. The data are stored at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, by Ketil Isaksen. The borehole thermal monitoring is carried out in cooperation between the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (K. Isaksen), the University of Oslo (T. Eiken, J.L. Sollid, R.S. Ødegård) and the Norwegian Geological Survey (L.H. Blikra).

In Svalbard, Hanne H. Christiansen (University Centre in Svalbard, UNIS) and Ole Humlum (University of Oslo) continued their monitoring programme on mountain meteorology, snow cover and ground temperatures around Longyearbyen. The meteorological station at Janssonhaugen has been collecting hourly data since May 2000, while a station at the mountain plateau Gruvefjellet (477 m asl) has been in operation since August 2002. At the Gruvefjellet station snow cover thickness, geomorphic activity and active layer temperatures are also monitored. The main research activity of Hanne H. Christiansen in 2004 was the collection of the first full year dataset on icewedge dynamics using a multi-technique approach. This demonstrated significant winter activity. Collaboration with Norikazu Matsuoka (University of Tsukuba, Japan) was started extending the field measurements of ice-wedge dynamics. Late Holocene loess deposits with syngenetic ice-wedges have been studied for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in cooperation with Anne Hormes (Uppsala University). Thaw progression is monitored in the UNISCALM site. Here a 10-m liquid-filled borehole has been instrumented for thermal monitoring. The effect of snow and snowdrift on slopes as avalanches are being monitored for enabling better linking between meteorology and avalanche activity. Geophysical measurements of pingos were carried out in Adventdalen by Neil Ross and Charles Harris (Cardiff University) together with H.H. Christiansen. All of these activities were demonstrated during the PACE21 workshop in Longyearbyen, Svalbard in September (see Other News).

In southern Norway, a programme on mountain meteorology, snow cover and ground temperatures was initiated in 2004 in a transect from the humid west coast (Sognefjorden- Ålesund) to the more continental regions at the Swedish border to the east (Femunden-Trysil), making use of a new type of automatic digital camera and dataloggers (O. Humlum, H. Juliussen both University of Oslo). This programme also attempts to map past conditions, making use of existing longmeteorological records, old photographs, written documentation and geomorphic evidence. By this approach, environmental changes back to the final Late Weichselian deglaciation will be investigated (O. Humlum).

In central and eastern Norway (Gaustatoppen, Sølen and Elgå Mountains), the University of Oslo continues for the fourth year its ground surface temperature monitoring and its permafrost mapping programme (E. Heggem, H. Juliussen, B. Etzelmüller, O. Humlum). In northern Norway (Lakselv area, Finnmark), BTS measurements, ground surface temperature monitoring and DC resistivity tomography were started in order to systematically map permafrost limits in the Gaissane Mountains (H. Farbrot, B. Etzelmüller). A regional-scale permafrost map based on meteorological observations over northern Norway was refined and validated at these localities.

In western Norway (Sognefjellet, Fannaråken), a small project on the relationship between small glaciers and permafrost includes ice and ground temperature monitoring and velocities measurements (B. Etzelmüller, J.O. Hagen, H. Uldahl). In Mongolia, a second year of ground surface and ground temperatures were recovered this summer from the Hövsgöl area (E. Heggem).

Scientists from the Department of Earth Science of the University of Bergen in collaboration with Russian colleagues are investigating the Quaternary history of the Pechora Lowland, Polar Urals and the West Siberian Plain in northern Russia. The emphasis is on glacial history (J. Svendsen), including huge ice-dammed lakes (J. Mangerud), that had a considerable influence on permafrost distribution. Numerous lakes were formed by delayed melting of buried glacial ice (M. Henriksen). Glacial ice has survived up to the present day also in the European part of northern Russia (V. Astakhov, J. Svendsen).

At the Geological Survey of Norway Achim Beylich continues his process research on mass transfers, denudation, sediment budgets and relief development in subarctic and arctic environments in Iceland and Lapland. Research on weathering and chemical denudation is carried out in cooperation with the Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden (E. Kolstrup, L.B. Pedersen and others). Research on denudation and interactions between geomorphological processes and vegetation cover is in collaboration with the Botanical Institute of Göteborg University, Sweden (U. Molau et al.), the Natural Research Centre of Northwestern Iceland in Saudårkrókur (Sæmundsson), the Kevo Subarctic Research Institute, Finland (S. Neuvonen), and the Institute of Geography of the University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany (K.-H. Schmidt). Sedimentation in small arctic lakes of Swedish Lapland is investigated in co-operation with the Department of Geology of the University of Helsinki, Finland. Beylich is the coordinator of the ESF Network SEDIFLUX (see Other News).

Angélique Prick (University of Liège, Belgium) continues monitoring rock temperature and weathering rates in the Longyearbyen area, Svalbard. She started in 2004 a rock temperature monitoring programme across Troms (northern Norway) in collaboration with H.H. Christiansen (UNIS), O. Humlum (University of Oslo) and D. Chaput (School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford).

Kaare Flaate (