The Institute of Geography reports the publication of several maps. Ya. Jambaljav and D. Byambademberel compiled and published the permafrost map of the Ulaanbaatar area (scale 1:100 000), using air photographs, remote sensing and land surface data. This map shows the distribution of mountain permafrost, the presence of permafrost in river valleys and in depressions, and the distribution of seasonally frozen ground.

D. Tumurbaatar, Ya. Jambaljav, D. Byambademberel, D. Battogtokh, D. Solongo published a map of seasonal freezing and thawing of frozen ground in Mongolia at a scale 1:1 500 000. D. Tumurbaatar published a book on seasonally frozen ground and permafrost in Mongolia, and is based on data and material he collected for more than 30 years. N. Sharkhuu reported continued collaboration on several international projects:

The primary goal of the Hövsgöl GEF (Global Environment Facility) project is to study the impacts of nomadic pasture use and climate change on watershed ecosystems, biodiversity and permafrost of the taiga (boreal) forest and steppe of northern Mongolia. During the last two and one-half years, the distribution, temperature and composition of permafrost and the depth of active layers have been studied and mapped by a joint team from Mongolia, Norway and Alaska using 16 shallow (5–10 m deep) boreholes, geophysical (resistivity) and geothermal (surface and ground temperature) measurements at different landscape sites. In October 2004 HOBO data loggers were installed in eight (5–10 m deep) boreholes, installed 10 UTL-1 data loggers under different soil surfaces and six UTL-1 data loggers on surfaces of specially prepared plots, established 15 snow benchmarks on different landscape sites in the Dalbay and Borsog valleys, installed 10 icing benchmarks along the Borsog river channel, and 12 frost-heave benchmarks near boreholes in the Dalbay and Borsog valleys. Ground temperatures in 25 boreholes, located in Hövsgöl project and surrounding areas, were measured.

The Japanese and Mongolian ERONIAR project continued for the third year in Nalaikh and Terelj areas near Ulaanbaatar with M. Ishikawa. Monthly observations were made in a seven-metre deep borehole at the Nalaikh site.

Continued observations at the 30 CALM sites and other GTN-P boreholes.

Within the framework of project on Central Asian permafrost mapping, data loggers are located at sites of differing on altitudes and aspects in the Altai, Hövsgöl, Khangai and Khentei mountain regions. With financial supports from Koyoto University and the Mongolian petroleum authority, monthly leveling measurements for the last two years were performed to study the dynamics of frost heave and thaw settlement of ground in five areas near Ulaanbaatar. Similar measurements were begun at sites in the Hovsgol Lake basin and the Darkhad depression.

D. Tumurbaatar (