The German Geoscientific Spitsbergen Expedition 1990-1992 consisted altogether of about 45 scientists from 14 different universities. The expedition results have since been published, with many results appearing in the latest volume ofZeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Supplementband 97, N.F., 1994. A bibliography of expedition results may be obtained from Prof. Lorenz King.

The Geographical Institute of the Justus Liebig University, Giessen, has again begun its permafrost studies in the Zermatt/Gornergrat area of the Swiss Alps. The main research topics are permafrost distribution and its implication for construction (e.g. buildings, cablecars). At the same institute, comparative studies on the regeneration of Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems after human disturbances have been continued in Swedish Lapland (Kiruna mining site), a continuation of the former studies of E. Schmitt in Spitsbergen (Longyearbyen) and Canada (Mackenzie Mountains).

In the field of permafrost engineering, two shafts were constructed in Germany for the exploration of a salt dome near Gorleben, which was selected because it may become a permanent deposit of radioactive waste. To stabilize the soil during shaft-sinking in unstable, water-bearing strata, the soil was frozen to a depth of 270 m. The shaft linings were designed as sliding lining systems, which are characterized by a bedded outer lining and an inner lining supported on a foundation and separated by an annulus filled with an asphalt mass.

The long construction period of ten years was due to many technical and administrative problems, which were solved by the fruitful cooperation of the employer, contractor, control boards and experts. For example, the control of high stresses inside the soft clay layers required installation of a stiff outer steel lining instead of the weak concrete block lining. The experience and the technical developments gained by this construction were a topic of the symposium "Gefrierschachte Gorleben" held on 21-22 September 1994 at Bochum and organized by the Geotechnical Institute,
Ruhr-University, Bochum. The proceedings of the symposium will be published at the end of 1994. Other international publications on this topic will follow.

The 7th International Symposium on Ground Freezing was held in Nancy, France, from 24-28 October 1994. Papers presented during five sessions covered heat and mass transfer, mechanical properties, case histories, environmental soil freezing, and engineering design. The proceedings are available.

Submitted by H.L. Jessberger and L. King