The Constitution was adopted in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, on 5 August 1987; revised by mail ballot on 1 December 1992; revised in Yellowknife, Canada, N.W.T., on 23 and 26 June 1998; revised by mail ballot 1 March 2003; revised in Potsdam, Germany, on 12 June 2005; revised by mail ballot in May 2006; revised by mail ballot in July 2010 following Council in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, on 14 June 2010.
PREAMBLE AND DEFINITIONS
During the Fourth International Conference on Permafrost held in Fairbanks , Alaska , in July 1983, the International Permafrost Association (IPA) was founded. The founding countries were: Canada , The People’s Republic of China, U.S.A. , and U.S.S.R ( Russia ). The founding of the IPA and the election of its Executive Committee members was announced at the closing plenary session, a set of principles was distributed to the delegates, and other countries with an interest in permafrost were invited to become members of the IPA.
The organizations referred to in the Constitution and By-laws are defined as follows:
(a) The Council is the governing body of the Association.
(b) An Adhering Body is a representative organization or committee designated to represent in the Council of the Association the interests in permafrost of scientists and engineers of a country.
(c) The Executive Committee and Secretariat, , led by the Executive Director conduct the day-to-day activities of the Association and implement and communicate the policies and views of the Association’s Council between sessions.
(d) Standing Committees, Interest Groups and Action Groups perform designated activities as approved by the Council.
(e) Individual Members are individuals that are members of the IPA independent of the existence of an Adhering Body in their country of residence.
The mission of the International Permafrost Association (hereafter called the Association) is to promote research in permafrost and permafrost-related fields within the global scientific and engineering communities, to support the activities of researchers in these disciplines, and to disseminate findings concerning permafrost to the decision-makers, the general public and educators.
The objectives of the Association are:
(i) To foster scientific and engineering research in permafrost and permafrost-related fields globally through the formation of Interest Groups, Action Groups and the like, and to support the activities of these groups.
(ii) To bring together all those interested in permafrost and permafrost-related subjects at regular intervals to share knowledge and exchange experiences at International and Regional Conferences on Permafrost, as well as in specialized workshops and special sessions at multidisciplinary conferences.
(iii) To be a point of access for accurate permafrost and permafrost-related information for the global scientific and engineering communities, decision-makers and politicians, the media and the general public, including those that live in permafrost regions.
(iv) To develop scientific information products such as maps, data-bases, reports and the like, and to enable the widest possible public access to these materials.
(v) To develop educational and outreach products to increase understanding of permafrost and permafrost-related subjects among youth.
(vi) To provide recognition for researchers through a series of awards and prizes that raise the profiles of the individuals and the IPA as a whole.
(vii) To encourage young scientists and engineers to pursue careers in permafrost and permafrost-related fields by involving them fully in the organization its activities.
The Association will accomplish these objectives by:
(i) holding an International Conference on Permafrost approximately every four years and regional conferences on permafrost midway between the International Conferences on Permafrost;
(ii) holding Council meetings at the time of the International Conference and of the regional conferences at approximately two-year intervals;
(iii) cooperating with other national and international organizations whose aims are complementary to those of the Association;
(iv) exchanging information through its Adhering Bodies and Associate Members;
(v) promoting cooperative activities and the development of knowledge concerning permafrost environments;
(vi) supporting the activities of Committees, Interest Groups and Action Groups.
Membership in the Association is through Adhering Bodies, Associate Members and Individual Members. There shall be only one Adhering Body per country. National or multi-national organizations wishing to join the Association must submit to the Secretariat documentation showing the existence of a bona fide Adhering Body, its mailing address and names of its officers. Membership in the Association must have the approval of two-thirds of the full Council. An Associate member consists normally of up to three persons from a country that does not have an Adhering Body. The Council has the right to terminate the membership of any Adhering Body or Associate Member by a two-thirds majority vote of the full Council. Individual Members are individuals registered with the Association and Adhering Bodies (if applicable) but who do not have the right to vote at Council.
5. Adhering Bodies and Associate Members
An Adhering Body is free to establish its articles of association and its organization in accordance with its requirements. The Association encourages the communication of these articles of association to the Secretariat and advocates their conformity to principles of democracy and transparency.
An Adhering Body shall at all times keep the Secretariat informed about its address and the names of its officers, of its representatives to Council and of the organization it relies on to pay its dues when applicable. An Associate Member shall provide to the Secretariat information on its members’ names and addresses.
6. Executive Committee of the Association
The Executive Committee of the International Permafrost Association consists of:
(i) The President and up to two Vice-Presidents,
(ii) Sufficient Ordinary Members to make up a committee of six or seven.
The Executive Committee shall be nominated in accordance with the rules stated in the Bylaws and shall be elected by the Council. Normally, the Executive Committee members shall be from different countries and represent a range of expertise in permafrost science and engineering.
The members of the Executive Committee of the Association shall serve from the start of the second Council meeting of the ICOP or RCOP to the end of the first Council meeting approximately four years later.
The President shall represent the Association and shall perform the duties pertaining to that office, as well as those entrusted to him by the Constitution and Bylaws or by the Council. The President shall be responsible, in collaboration with the other Executive Committee members of the Association, for the conduct of its affairs.
In the event of the resignation or death of the President, one of the Vice-Presidents will assume the office for the unexpired term of office.
In the event of the resignation or death of one of the Vice-Presidents, or if one of the Vice-Presidents assumes the office of President, the Executive Committee will appoint a successor from among its members who will complete the term of office.
The Secretariat and its location and its Executive Director shall be recommended by the Executive Committee and approved by the Council. The Secretariat shall not represent an Adhering Body on the Council.
The Council shall consist of the Executive Committee, no more than two representatives from each Adhering Body, and a representative of each Associate Member. Other persons, including Individual Members, may attend Council as observers.
Each Adhering Body shall have a vote. If no official representative is able to attend a meeting of the Council, his or her vote may be cast by an authorized proxy designated in writing or electronic mail by the Adhering Body and provided to the Secretariat. Associate Members may be represented by one person at the Council but shall have no vote. Observers present shall have no vote.
The Council shall be presided over by the President of the Association, or, in case of his or her incapacity or inability to attend, by a Vice-President. In the event of an equal decision of votes, the President or acting President shall cast the deciding vote.
The Council shall meet in ordinary session at the call of the President normally every two years during an International Conference on Permafrost or a Regional Conference on Permafrost. The Council may meet in extraordinary sessions at the call of the President or at the request of a majority of the Adhering Bodies. The Council may make decisions by written communication on questions put to it through the Secretariat with the approval of the President.
The Council may set up, by a simple majority vote, Standing and Ad Hoc Committees, or Interest Groups with whatever powers and terms of reference it may decide.
The Council shall determine, with the advice of the Executive Committee, the annual subscription fee to the Association. The Council shall review the annual budget and, unless there is an objection, the Secretariat, with approval of the Executive Committee, shall disburse the funds. The responsibilities of the Council may be executed by electronic mail ballot, unless there is an objection.
8. Individual Members
Individual Members are individuals officially registered with the Association through electronic adhesion, whether or not an Adhering Body exists in their country of residence. Individual Members shall not vote at Council but are entitled to receive communications from the Secretariat on the deliberation of the Council
9. International Conference on Permafrost and Regional Conference on Permafrost
An International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) shall be held approximately every fourth year in a country to be decided upon by the Council. A Regional Conference on Permafrost (RCOP) that is proposed by an IPA council member and sponsored by the IPA will be held in the second year following an ICOP. The organization and financing arrangements of an International or a Regional Conference are the responsibility of the Adhering Body of the host country. The Adhering Body shall follow the principles, rules and procedures for the Conference set out in the Bylaws and any additional procedures approved by the Council, including guidelines prescribed by the International Conference Advisory Committee (IAC). An IAC for the ICOP shall be appointed by the Council to provide continuity in maintaining Conference policies and to assist in other matters as requested by the hosting member. The organizers of an ICOP or a RCOP, or any international conference sponsored by the Association shall donate a portion of the registration fees to the Association. The Association shall not be held liable for financial losses, damages, injuries or any hazardous occurrence involving financial misfortune incurred by, or caused by, the participants or the organizers of a sponsored conference.
10. Entry into Force of Constitution and Bylaws
This Constitution and Bylaws shall come into force at the close of the session at which they receive the approval of at least two-thirds of the full Council.
11. Amendments to Constitution and Bylaws
Amendments to the Constitution and these Bylaws must be proposed by an Adhering Body. Such amendments shall be submitted in writing or electronic mail to the Secretariat early enough to have the proposal submitted to all Adhering Bodies at least six months prior to the Council meeting at which the amendment(s) is to be placed on the agenda. An extraordinary mail ballot can be conducted between Council meetings.
Adoption of an amendment will require an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the full Council (Adhering Bodies in good standing).
Amendments to the Bylaws shall follow the same procedure except that a simple majority in
favor of the amendments is required instead of two-thirds, as above.
12. Non-Profit Organization
The International Permafrost Association shall be carried on without purpose of gain for its members and any income or other accretions to the International Permafrost Association shall be used in promoting the objectives of the Association.
(i) A quorum for a Council meeting shall be a simple majority of the Adhering Bodies,
except if changes in the Constitution are to be made or a vote is to be held on the acceptance of an application for membership. In these cases, a quorum shall be two-thirds of the full Council (Adhering Bodies in good standing).
(ii) Any Adhering Body that will not be present for a vote requiring a two-thirds majority may submit its views and vote in advance in writing or by electronic mail. In this case that Adhering Body will be regarded as being present for the purposes of the quorum for the vote.
(iii) Voting shall be by a show of hands except for the election of the Executive Committee, the location of the next International Conference on Permafrost, or for other matters specified at the time by the presiding member of the Executive Committee. Between Council meetings, voting usually performed by a show of hands may take place in the form of postal or electronic mail.
(iv) Resolutions shall be made by a simple majority of those voting, except for resolutions altering the Constitution or on the acceptance of new Adhering Bodies and Associate Members, for which the assent of two-thirds of the Council is required.
(v) Adhering Bodies wishing to have items placed on the agenda should submit them not less than six months before a Council meeting. Three months before the meeting the Secretariat will send the complete agenda to each Adhering Body and representative of an Associate Member. The agenda for the ordinary meeting of Council shall generally include the following items:
(a) Minutes of previous meeting
(b) Acceptance of new Adhering Bodies and Associate Members
(c) Business raised by the President
(d) Business raised by the Adhering Bodies and Associate Members
(e) Business from other sources
(f) Financial statement for the preceding period and the draft budget for the ensuing period
(g) International Conference and Regional Conference
(h) Election of members to the Executive Committee
(i) Appointment of Executive Director
(j) Review of activities and reports of Committees, Interest Groups and Action Groups
(k) Items submitted after preparation of agenda, subject to agreement of presiding Executive Committee member
(l) Any other business
2. Nomination and Election of Executive Committee
The Executive Committee shall appoint a Nominating Committee of an appropriate number from the Council one year before an ICOP. The Nominating Committee will serve for a period of four years. The Adhering Bodies will call for nominations, including self-nominations, from among their own members. Each Adhering Body can forward a maximum of two candidacies to the IPA Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee will screen the candidates nominated by the Adhering Bodies and put forward an appropriate number for election by the Council. The Nominating Committee submits to the Secretariat the names of candidates six months before a Conference. The Nominating Committee shall ensure that the nominees are willing to serve if elected. The Secretariat, upon receipt of the report of the Nominating Committee, shall so inform the Adhering Bodies. The IPA Nominating Committee may include candidates that were not forwarded by Adhering Bodies.
Every two years, the IPA Council would elect by secret ballot new members to the Executive Committee, according to the number of open positions. The candidates with the greatest numbers of votes will be elected. If there is a tie in the number of votes for the last position on the Executive, a second vote to consider only the tied candidates would be held.
The newly elected Executive Committee will hold a meeting to appoint from their members the Vice-Presidents. This meeting will be chaired by the President. Two years before the end of the President’s term of office a Senior Vice-President is selected by the Executive Committee.
The Senior Vice-President will automatically become the new President of the IPA and serve for four years. If the Senior Vice-President withdraws, the Executive Committee will appoint a new Senior Vice-President. If the President resigns, the Senior Vice-President automatically becomes President or, if there is no Senior Vice-President, the Executive Committee will appoint a new President from within its membership.
After the President and Vice-President positions are filled, if the Executive Committee determines that there is regional or disciplinary imbalance among its members, or if it lacks a member from the country hosting the next International Conference, it may (with unanimous consent) appoint a seventh member to serve until the next election.
The Secretariat is led by an Executive Director
The Executive Director shall be nominated to the Council by the Executive Committee. The position shall be reviewed on a four-year basis.
The Executive Director shall be responsible, under the general direction of the President, for the conduct of current business of the Association, for the preparation and distribution of the Agenda of the Council meetings and for the preparation and maintenance of minutes.
The Executive Director shall send to each Adhering Body an annual account of the dues owing, and shall ensure that all contributions and dues paid to the Association are placed in a bank account and that a record is kept. The Executive Director, or duly appointed surrogate, is responsible for keeping the accounts of the Association, for the preparation of the annual budget of receipts and expenditures, and for payments on behalf of the Association up to the limit of the approved budget, and shall acknowledge all moneys received. The Executive Director shall prepare a summary of the accounts for each meeting of the Council and shall give any explanation required of expenses incurred.
(i) Invitations to act as host for an International Conference on Permafrost and the accompanying Council meetings shall be considered at the same time at the meeting of the Council at the time of the preceding International Conference.
The inviting country must provide assurance that no individual will be denied attendance on grounds of nationality, race, creed or political views. If an invitation is received from more than one Adhering Body the final selection shall be made by secret ballot according to proportional voting (based on units paid).
Arrangements for the International Conference on Permafrost shall be the responsibility of the organizing Committee of the host country, in consultation with the Executive Committee and the International Conference Advisory Committee.
(ii) Adhering Bodies or their affiliates, Committees, Interest Groups and Action Groups are encouraged to organize technical meetings and regional Conferences. These may be designated as co-sponsored by the International Permafrost Association if approved by the Council or the Executive Committee.
(iii) Organisers of International and Regional Conferences on Permafrost must undertake to donate a portion of the registration fees to the Association at a level fixed from time to time by Council. The level for a particular conference will not be changed after the invitation to host the conference has been accepted.
5. Committees, Interest Groups and Action Groups
The organization and activities of Committees, Interest Groups and Action Groups are governed by guidelines approved by the Council.